d3TH_lings | the gods and goddesses of darkness, death and the night – the blood gods of old…
Darkness is characterized by the absence of visible light. The emotional response of humans to darkness has led to many culturally different metaphorical usages. For example, in Christianity the first narrative of creation begins with darkness. Darkness is said to have existed before the world, then light was introduced.

Death is perceived as the ultimate form of darkness, there has not been a single culture in the history of humankind that has not spent a significant amount of time thinking about death and darkness. It should be no surprise, therefore, that we attribute the mysterious processes of death and darkness to supernatural forces. Consequently, we have envisioned beings that usher souls from the mortal coil into the afterlife (d3TH_lings).

These perceptions of darkness and death are largely associated with evil. However, this has not always been the case. In the past, darkness and death were seen as a part of natural order, something that had existed since the beginning of time.
Adro
Adro
Like most gods of African origin, Adro is one of the aspects of one supreme god. Adro depicts the evil side while Adroa is the benevolent side, also known as the god in the sky. Adroa was remote from the matters on earth. Each of the two aspects of the supreme god has half a body, one eye, one arm, one ear, one kidney, one leg, etc.
While Adroa is regarded as perfection itself, he had no direct contact or involvement in earth matters. Adro was responsible for the matters on earth and was the only one who could interact directly with humans. Adro remained invisible but he could take different forms for appearance. Sometimes he would also appear almost translucent like a white and tall half-man to people who are on the verge of death. Adro possesses young women, causes illnesses and death, and even abducts people for the sake of eating them.  

Ah Puch
Ah Puch is one of the names associated with a god of death in the ancient Mayan religion. He was known as a god of death, darkness, and disaster. But he was also a god of childbirth and beginnings. The Quiche Maya believed that he ruled over Metnal, the underworld and the Yucatec Maya believed that he was just one of the lords of Xibaba, that translates to "place of fear" in the underworld.
Ah Puch ruled Mitnal, the lowest level of the Mayan underworld. Because he ruled death, he was closely allied with the gods of war, disease, and sacrifice. Like the Aztecs, the Mayans associated death with dogs and owls, so Ah Puch was generally accompanied by a dog or an owl. Therefore, if an owl screeches, it is believed someone nearby will die. And if a hoot is heard, one should take a deep breath and count to ten. He is the patron of the number 10 and the 4th day of the 260-day calendar, Kimi, which means “death.”
Though also related to childbirth and beginnings, Ah Puch is not depicted as a kind god and said to work against the gods of fertility. He is also known to stalk the homes of the sick and/or injured. The only way to escape Ah Puch’s attention is to howl, scream, and moan as loud as possible. This way, the god will assume you are already being tormented by his lesser demons.

Ahriman
In Zoroastrianism, Ahriman, originally a primordial desert spirit, is the source of all evil. There are different legends about the origins of Ahriman as the evil god. In one, Ahura Mazda, the good god, created the universe and twins called Spenta Mainyu (the spirit of Light, Truth, and Life) and Angra Mainyu (the spirit of Darkness, Deceit and Death). The twins fight for supremacy and their battleground is Earth. Over time, Spenta Mainyu became absorbed into Ahura Mazda, and Angra Mainyu became Ahriman. The battle between the two forces continues and will last for thousands of years, divided into eras. After the fourth era, three saviors will appear, who will destroy Ahriman and all his forces of evil. 
According to another legend, Ahriman, and Ormazd (a contraction of Ahura Mazda) were twins born to Zuvan, the creator deity. Zurvan declared that the firstborn would be supreme ruler. Ahriman ripped himself out of the womb in order to be first. Zurvan was bound by his promise, but he limited the time that Ahriman could rule. At the end of that, Ormazd would take over and reign in goodness and light. The Earth is presently under the rule of Ahriman; that is why there are drought, famine, war, disease, pestilence, and other ills. To aid him in his rule, Ahriman created 99,999 diseases, and six Archdemons, called Evil Mind, Tyranny, Enmity, Violence, Wrath, and Falsehood. He also created a female Demon named AZ and a dragon. The Archdemons struggle against the six archangel amarahspands, or “Bounteous Immortals.”

Apophis
Apophis is the ancient Egyptian deity who embodies chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and is thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He is seen as a giant snake or serpent leading to such titles as Serpent from the Nile and Evil Dragon. Some elaborations said that he stretched 16 yards in length and had a head made of flint. Already on a Naqada I (c. 4000 BC) C-ware bowl a snake was painted on the inside rim combined with other desert and aquatic animals as a possible enemy of a deity, possibly a solar deity, who is invisibly hunting in a big rowing vessel.
The few descriptions of Apophis’ origin in myth usually demonstrate that he was born after Ra, usually from his umbilical cord. His absence from Egyptian creation myths has been interpreted as suggesting that Apophis was not a primordial force in Egyptian theology, but a consequence of Ra's birth. This suggests that evil in Egyptian theology is the consequence of an individual's own struggles against non-existence.
Tales of Apophis’ battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom. Storytellers said that every day Apophis must lie below the horizon and not persist in the mortal kingdom. This appropriately made him a part of the underworld. In some stories, Apophis waited for Ra in a western mountain called Bakhu, where the sun set, and in others, Apophis lurked just before dawn, in the Tenth region of the Night. The wide range of Apophis’ possible locations gained him the title World-Encircler. It was thought that his terrifying roar would cause the underworld to rumble. Myths sometimes say that Apophis was trapped there, because he had been the previous chief god overthrown by Ra, or because he was evil and had been imprisoned.
The Coffin Texts imply that Apophis used a magical gaze to overwhelm Ra and his entourage. Ra was assisted by several defenders who travelled with him, including Set and possibly the Eye of Ra. Apophis’ movements were thought to cause earthquakes, and his battles with Set may have been meant to explain the origin of thunderstorms.
Ra's victory each night was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshippers at temples. The Egyptians practiced several rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apophis, and aid Ra in continuing his journey across the sky.
In an annual rite called the Banishing of Chaos, priests would build an effigy of Apophis that was thought to contain all the evil and darkness in Egypt and burn it to protect everyone from Apophis’ evil for another year.
The Egyptian priests had a detailed guide to fighting Apophis, referred to as The Books of Overthrowing Apophis. The chapters described a gradual process of dismemberment and disposal. In addition to stories about Ra's victories, this guide had instructions for making wax models, or small drawings, of the serpent, which would be spat on, mutilated, and burnt, whilst reciting spells that would kill Apophis. Fearing that even the image of Apophis could give power to the demon, any rendering would always include another deity to subdue the monster.
As Apophis was thought to live in the underworld, he was sometimes thought of as an Eater of Souls. Thus, the dead also needed protection, so they were sometimes buried with spells that could destroy Apophis. The Book of the Dead does not frequently describe occasions when Ra defeated the chaos snake explicitly called Apophis. Only Book of the Dead Spells 7 and 39 can be explained as such.

Batara Kala
Batara Kala is the god of the underworld in traditional Javanese and Balinese mythology, ruling from a cave along with Setesuyara. Batara Kala is also named the creator of light and the earth, and the god of time and destruction, who devours unlucky people. He is related to Hindu concept of Kala, or time. In mythology, he causes eclipses by trying to eat the Sun or the Moon.
When this eclipse happens, Javanese villagers will try to save the Sun or Moon by offering sacrifices and banging lesung (traditional rice hulling equipment) or slit drums, to cause noise and make Batara Kala vomit. This is thought to release the Sun or Moon and stop the eclipse. According to legend, Batara Kala is the son of Batara Guru (the Javanese version of Shiva). Batara Guru has a very beautiful wife named Dewi Uma (Parvati). One day Batara Guru, in a fit of uncontrolled lust, forced himself on Dewi Uma. They had sexual intercourse on top of his vahana Nandi, a divine cow. This behavior shamed Uma, who cursed both of them, so they appeared as fearsome and ugly ogres. This fierce form of Dewi Uma is also known in Hinduism as Durga. From this relationship, Batara Kala was born with the appearance of an ogre.
Another origin story is that he was conceived when a drop of Shiva's semen was swallowed by a fish.
Batara Kala is described as having an insatiable appetite and being very rude. He was sent by the devas to Earth to punish humans for their evil habits. However, Batara Kala was interested only in devouring humans to satisfy his appetite. Alarmed, the devas then recalled Batara Kala from the Earth. He later became ruler of the underworld, together with the goddess Setesuyara.
Traditionally, Javanese people try to obtain his favor, as the god of time and destruction, to prevent misfortune, especially to children. Exorcism ceremonies, called ruwatan, are held for children born under "unlucky" circumstances, such as being born feet-first. This is to prevent such children from being devoured by Batara Kala. This ceremony usually includes a wayang (Javanese shadow puppets) performance and a selamatan feast.

Camazotz
In Maya mythology, Camazotz is a bat god. Camazotz means "death bat" in the Kʼicheʼ language. In Mesoamerica, the bat is associated with night, death, and sacrifice. Camazotz is formed from the Kʼicheʼ words kame, meaning "death", and sotz', meaning "bat".
The worship of Camazotz dates to 100 B.C. among the Zapotecs in Oaxaca, who, apparently, were the first to worship an anthropomorphic entity with the head of a bat and the body of a human. The figure was later adopted into the pantheon of the Maya Kʼiche tribe, and the legends of the bat god were later recorded in Maya literature.
The Zapotecs believed bats represented night, death, and sacrifice. This was likely since the bats would inhabit the caves around the sacred cenotes, which the Mesoamericans believed were portals to the underworld. It would be a very chilling sight at dusk when the bats would swarm out of these ‘portals’ and begin drinking the blood of the other animals. The god is also commonly depicted holding a sacrificial knife in one hand and a human heart or sacrificial victim in the other.
The Popol Vuh, which translates literally as the “Book of the People,” contains a collection of Mayan stories and legends that were originally passed down through oral tradition. They were finally committed to paper in 1550 and were preserved when an 18th-century Dominican friar named Francisco Ximénez translated them into Spanish.
In the Popol Vuh, Camazotz are the bat-like monsters encountered by the Maya Hero Twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque during their trials in the underworld of Xibalba. The twins had to spend the night in the House of Bats, where they squeezed themselves into their own blowguns to defend themselves from the circling bats. Hunahpu stuck his head out of his blowgun to see if the sun had risen and Camazotz immediately snatched off his head. Xbalanqué was left inside the tube, questioning what his brother was seeing and why he had gone so still without receiving any answers. The bat then took the head of Hunahpú to the ball court of the Xibalba lords to be gruesomely displayed and used as a ball while the lords rejoiced in their assumed victory.

Coatlicue
Coatlicue is a major deity in the Aztec pantheon and regarded as the earth-mother goddess, both creator and destroyer, mother of the gods and mortals. Represented as an old woman, she symbolized the antiquity of earth worship, and she presents one of the most fearsome figures in Aztec art. Coatlicue was also the patron of childbirth, was associated with warfare, governance, and agriculture, and considered the female aspect of the primordial god Ometeotl. The goddess was worshipped in the spring ritual of Tozozontli in the rainy season and in the autumnal hunting festival of Quecholli when an impersonator of the goddess was sacrificed.
Prior to the Spanish Conquest, Coatlicue related to other female earth deities, such as Toci (Our Grandmother). Several sixteenth-century Spanish Colonial sources mention that Coatlicue belonged to a class of deities known as tzitzimime (deities related to the stars), who were considered terrifying and dangerous. For example, outside of the 360-days that formed the agricultural calendar (called the year count or xiuhpohualli), there were five extra “nameless” days. The Aztecs believed this was an ominous time when bad things could happen. The tzitzimime, for instance, could descend to the earth’s surface and eat people or at least wreak havoc, causing instability and fear. In Spanish Colonial chronicles, the tzitzimime are depicted with skeletonized faces and monster claws—similar to what we see in Coatlicue sculptures. These sources also call the tzitzimime demons or devils.

Crnobog
Crnobog "Black God", is the god of bad fate worshipped by the Polabian Slavs. The German monk and chronicler Helmold, who accompanied the Christianization missions against the Elbe Slavs, describes in his Chronicle of the Slavs the cult of Crnobog:
Also, the Slavs have a strange delusion. At their feasts and carousals, they pass about a bowl over which they utter words, I should not say of consecration but of execration, in the name of [two] gods—of the good one, as well as of the bad one—professing that all propitious fortune is arranged by the good god, adverse, by the bad god. Hence, also, in their language they call the bad god Crnobog, that is, the black god.
All kinds of rituals in the glory of Crnobog are recorded in history, most of them featuring women. The ceremonies took place at night under the light of torches or big bonfires. Women danced until they fell into trance, holding snakes as offerings to Crnobog.
In Slav tradition a sacrificial goblet was drank from at feasts, both in the name of good and evil goods because they believed that every kind of luck must come from good gods and that every kind of misfortune comes from evil gods. Even though Crnobog is sometimes equated with the devil but it is clear that he is not just some evil demon or demigod but a full-fledged blood god of all Slavs, the greatest god of the underworld and of all evils that can take infinite number of forms.

Dhumavati
Dhumavati धूमावती, "the smoky one" is one of the Mahavidyas, a group of ten Tantric goddesses. Dhumavati represents the fearsome aspect of Parvati, the Hindu Divine Mother. She is often portrayed as an old, ugly widow, and is associated with things considered inauspicious and unattractive in Hinduism, such as the crow and the Chaturmas period.
Dhumavati is said to manifest herself at the time of cosmic dissolution (pralaya) and is "the Void" that exists before creation and after dissolution. While Dhumavati is generally associated with only inauspicious qualities, her thousand-name hymn relates her positive aspects as well as her negative ones. She is often called tender-hearted and a bestower of boons. Dhumavati is described as a great teacher, one who reveals ultimate knowledge of the universe, which is beyond the illusory divisions, like auspicious and inauspicious. Her ugly form teaches the devotee to look beyond the superficial, to look inwards and seek the inner truths of life.
Dhumavati is described as a giver of siddhis (supernatural powers), a rescuer from all troubles, and a granter of all desires and rewards, including ultimate knowledge and moksha (salvation). Her worship is also prescribed for those who wish to defeat their foes. Dhumavati's worship is considered ideal for unpaired members of society, such as bachelors, widows, and world renouncers as well as Tantrikas. In her Varanasi temple, however, she transcends her inauspiciousness and acquires the status of a local protective deity. There, even married couples worship her. Although she has very few dedicated temples, her worship by Tantric ritual continues in private in secluded places like cremation grounds and forests.

Ereshkigal
In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal, "Queen of the Great Earth" was the goddess of Kur, the land of the dead or underworld in Sumerian mythology. In later myths, she was said to rule Irkalla alongside her husband Nergal. Sometimes her name is given as Irkalla, similar to the way the name Hades was used in Greek mythology for both the underworld and its ruler, and sometimes it is given as Ninkigal, "Lady of the Great Earth".
Ereshkigal was only one of multiple deities regarded as rulers of the underworld in Mesopotamia. The main temple dedicated to her was located in Kutha, a city originally associated with Nergal, and her cult had a very limited scope. No personal names with "Ereshkigal" as a theophoric element are known.
In the ancient Sumerian poem Inanna's Descent to the Underworld, Ereshkigal is described as Inanna's older sister. However, they weren't commonly associated with each other.
The two main myths involving Ereshkigal are the story of Inanna's descent into the Underworld and the story of Ereshkigal's marriage to the god Nergal. Other myths also associate her with gods such as Ninazu, originally regarded as her husband but later as a son, and Ningishzida.

Eshu
Eshu, also known as Elegba or Legba, is a trickster god of the Yoruba people of Nigeria in West Africa. He is unpredictable, sly, and fond of pranks that can be cruel and disruptive. Eshu, who knows all the languages spoken on earth, serves as a messenger between the gods and people. He also carries up to heaven the sacrifices that people offer to the gods.
According to one story, Eshu became the messenger after playing a trick on the High God. He stole yams from the god's garden, used the god's slippers to make footprints there, and then suggested that the god had stolen the yams himself. Annoyed, the High God ordered Eshu to visit the sky every night and tell him what happened on earth during the day.
Eshu enjoys confusion. Many stories tell of tricks he plays that cause arguments between friends or between husbands and wives. In one myth he lured the sun and moon into changing places, which upset the cosmic order. As the god of change, chance, and uncertainty, Eshu is sometimes paired with Ifa, a god representing order. In one tale Eshu claimed that he would ruin Ifa, who laughingly replied, "If you transform yourself, I shall do the same, and if I die, you will die, for so it has been ordained in heaven." In this way, order and disorder are forever paired, and neither can exist without the other.

Itzpapalotl
In Aztec religion, Itzpapalotl ("Obsidian Butterfly") is a striking skeletal warrior goddess who rules over the paradise world of Tamoanchan, the paradise of victims of infant mortality and the place identified as where humans are created. She is the mother of Mixcoatl and is particularly associated with the moth Rothschildia orizaba from the family Saturniidae. Some of her associations are birds and fire. However, she primarily appears in the form of the Obsidian Butterfly.
Itzpapalotl is the patron of the day and associated with the stars Cozcuauhtli and Trecena 1 House in the Aztec calendar. The Trecena 1 House is one of the five western trecena dates dedicated to the cihuateteo, or women who have died in childbirth. Not only was Itzpapalotl considered one of the cihuateteo herself, but she was also one of the tzitzimime, star demons that threatened to devour people during solar eclipses.
One of the prominent aspects of the ritual surrounding Itzpapalotl relates to the creation story of the Aztec tribe, the Chichimec. The ritual is illustrated in the sixteenth century document known as the Map of Cuauhtinchan No. 2. An illustration from this document shows Chichimec warriors emerging out of a seven-chambered cave behind Itzpapalotl. The deity is shown brandishing a severed leg, thought to be a symbol of battle. Beginning in the 1990s, archeologists exploring the Barranca Del Aguila region, southwest of Mexico City, have discovered caves carved to simulate the seven chambered cave, known as Chicomoztoc, from the ritual creation narrative.
According to the Manuscript of 1558, section VII, Itzpapalotl was one of two divine 2-headed doe-deers (the other one being Chimalman) who temporarily transformed themselves into women to seduce men. Itzpapalotl approached the two "cloud serpents named Xiuhnel and Mimich", who transformed themselves into men. To Xiuhnel, Itzpapalotl said ""Drink, Xiuhnel." Xiuhnel drank the blood and then immediately lay down with her. Suddenly she ... devoured him, tore open his breast. ... Then Mimich ... ran and ... descended into a thorny barrel cactus, fell into it, and the woman fell down after him."
In the myth-history narrative of the Annales de Cuauhtitlan, the cloud deity victims take the form of deer, the hearts of whom are eaten by Itzpapalotl. The theme of the heart devouring goddess appears in other global mythologies.

Ixtab
At the time of the Spanish conquest of Yucatán (1527–1546), Ixtab "Rope Woman", "Hangwoman" was the indigenous Maya goddess of suicide by hanging. Playing the role of a psychopomp, she would accompany such suicides to heaven. The only description of the goddess occurs in the Relación of the 16th-century Spanish inquisitor Diego de Landa:
They said also and held it as absolutely certain that those who hanged themselves went to this heaven of theirs; and on this account, there were many persons who on slight occasions of sorrows, troubles or sickness, hanged themselves in order to escape these things and to go and rest in their heaven [gloria], where they said that the goddess of the gallows [la diosa de la horca], whom they called Ixtab, would bring them.
It has been claimed that the Pre-Spanish Maya did not have a suicide goddess, or a significant narrative of suicide by hanging. The function of Ixtab as a benevolent "hangwoman" could derive from a basic association with snares. Animals hoisted by such snares are found depicted in the Dresden and Madrid codices, the Madrid codex (MC45c) personifying one of these traps by a male hunting deity. Ixtab could be understood as a specialized, female form of such a deity, luring the human quarry into the hanging rope personified by her. Suicides freely putting their heads into this "snare" prompted, perhaps, by a dream could then be seen to consecrate themselves to her. On the other hand, the Xtabay of contemporary folklore is a seductive female demon "ensnaring" or "deceiving" her male human preys to madden and destroy them.

Kalma
Kalma is the Finnish goddess of death and decay, her name meaning "The Stench of Corpses". Her favorite places to linger are graveyards and cemeteries; in fact, one Finnish word for graveyard is kalmisto, derived from her name. Some sources state that she moves on a vehicle of odors, much like a puff of smoke.
Her father is Tuoni and her mother Tuonetar. Kalma may also have several sisters, Kipu-Tyttö, Kivutar, Loviatar, and Vammatar, all of whom live in the Finnish underworld realm of Tuonela. Kalma is accompanied and protected by Surma, a dog-like creature whose name literally means "death" (though the word surma is usually used to refer to someone being killed, as opposed to dying of natural causes).

Kuk
Kuk is the deification of the concept of primordial darkness (kkw sm3w the name is written as kk or kkwy with a variant of the sky hieroglyph in ligature with the staff (N2) associated with the word for "darkness" kkw) in the ancient Egyptian Ogdoad cosmogony of Hermopolis, deity of night and darkness, and symbolizes the unknown and chaos. The Ogdoad consists of four pairs of deities, four male gods paired with their female counterparts. As such, Kuk was viewed as having male and female qualities. His female form was known as Kauket, which is simply the female form of the word Kuk.
Kuk is the god of the hours before dawn and is known as "Bringer-in-of-the-Light" as he guides the sun barge of the god Ra toward the sky from the underworld. Kauket, his feminine balance, is called "Bringer-in-of-the-Darkness" who presides over the hours of twilight when the sun is setting and guides the sun barge into the underworld.
In the Greco-Roman period, Kek's male form was depicted as a frog-headed man, and the female form as a serpent-headed woman, as were all four dualistic concepts in the Ogdoad.
In relation to the 2016 United States presidential election, individuals associated with online message boards, such as 4chan, noted a similarity between Kek and the character Pepe the Frog. This, combined with the frequent use of the term "kek" as a popular stand-in for the internet slang "lol", which was often paired with images of Pepe, resulted in a resurgence of interest in the ancient deity.

Loviatar
Loviatar is a blind daughter of Tuoni, the god of death in Finnish mythology and Tuonetar, the underworld queen. Loviatar is regarded as the goddess of death and disease. She was impregnated by wind and gave birth to nine sons, the Nine diseases. In some poems, she also gives birth to a tenth child who is a girl. However, before giving a name to the daughter Loviatar threw her into a river, killing her. Ancient Finns believed that a child became a part of the community only after it had been named; before that, even killing it was acceptable. In Mythologia Fennica, Loviatar is called the emuu of wolves.
In the Kalevala Loviatar appears in Rune XLV:
The blind daughter of Tuoni,
Old and wicked witch, Lowyatar,
Worst of all the Death-land women,
Ugliest of Mana's children,
Source of all the host of evils,
All the ills and plagues of Northland,
Black in heart, and soul, and visage,
Evil genius of Lappala,
Made her couch along the wayside,
On the fields of sin and sorrow;
Turned her back upon the East-wind,
To the source of stormy weather,
To the chilling winds of morning.

Meng Po
Meng Po 孟婆; 'Old Lady Meng' is the goddess of forgetfulness in Chinese mythology.  According to Chinese mythology, there exist several realms beneath the Earth. Meng Po serves in Diyu, the Chinese realm of the dead, in the 10th court. She awaits the dead souls at the entrance of the 9th round (Fengdu). It is her task to ensure that souls who are ready to be reincarnated do not remember their previous life or their time in hell. To this end she collects herbs from various earthly ponds and streams to make her Five Flavored Tea of Forgetfulness 迷魂汤; 'waters of oblivion'. This is given to each soul to drink before they leave Diyu. The brew induces instant and permanent amnesia, and all memory of other lives is lost.
Having been purged of all previous sins and knowledge, the dead spirit is sent to be reborn in a new earthly incarnation according to the karma accrued over their previous lifetimes, and the cycle begins again. In Chinese tradition, there are legends of miracle births, where a newborn is able to speak because the soul of the baby didn't drink the Five Flavored Tea of Forgetfulness. Occasionally people are able to avoid drinking the brew, resulting in past life memories surfacing in children.
In some variations of the myth, the true identity of Meng Po is that of Lady Meng Jiang. After the death of her husband, Meng Jiang found herself unable to reincarnate due to her grief. In order to relieve the pain of life of other spirits, Lady Meng took the initiative to create a bowl of soup that would allow spirits to forget the suffering of their material life.

Mictlantecuhtli & Mictecacihuatl
Mictlantecuhtli, meaning "Lord of Mictlan", in Aztec mythology, is a god of the dead and the king of Mictlan (Chicunauhmictlan), the lowest and northernmost section of the underworld. In the Colonial Codex Vaticanus 3738, Mictlantecuhtli is labelled in Spanish as "the lord of the underworld, Tzitzimitl, the same as Lucifer". He is one of the principal gods of the Aztecs and is the most prominent of several gods and goddesses of death and the underworld. The worship of Mictlantecuhtli sometimes involved ritual cannibalism, with human flesh being consumed in and around the temple.
His wife was Mictecacihuatl, and together they were said to dwell in a windowless house in Mictlan. Mictlantecuhtli was associated with spiders, owls, bats, the 11th hour, and the northern compass direction, known as Mictlampa, the region of death. He was one of only a few deities held to govern over all three types of souls identified by the Aztecs, who distinguished between the souls of people who died normal deaths (of old age, disease, etc.), heroic deaths (e.g., in battle, sacrifice or during childbirth), or non-heroic deaths. Mictlantecuhtli and his wife were the opposites and complements of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, the givers of life.
When a person died, they were interred with grave goods, which they carried with them on the long and dangerous journey to the underworld. Upon arrival in Mictlan these goods were offered to Mictlantecuhtli and his wife.
Two life-size clay statues of Mictlantecuhtli were found marking the entrances to the House of Eagles to the north of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan.
Moros
In Greek mythology, Moros (Ancient Greek: Μόρος means 'doom, fate') is the 'hateful' personified spirit of impending doom, who drives mortals to their deadly fate. It was also said that Moros gave people the ability to foresee their death. Moros is the offspring of Nyx, the primordial goddess of the night. It is suggested by Roman authors that Moros was sired by Erebus, primordial god of darkness. However, in Hesiod's Theogony it is suggested that Nyx bore him by herself, along with several of her other children. Regardless of the presence or absence of Moros' father, this would make him the brother of the Moirai, or the Fates. Among his other siblings are Thanatos and the Keres, death spirits who represented the physical aspects of death—Keres being the bringers of violent death and terminal sickness, while Thanatos represents a more peaceful passing.
Moros wrote the destination; the Fates made sure that it came true, and shortly afterwards, chaos was integrated into the cosmos for all beings that could escape on the occasion of their own destiny. It was even proclaimed by the Moirae that not even Zeus could question Moros (destiny), who like his mother, Nyx, was invisible and dark. To break with destiny was to reintroduce Chaos into the world. Even if Zeus issued a decree or made a promise he later regretted, he could not then change his decree because it was destiny. In which case, he was the only force that Zeus dreaded. Because of this, Moros was also considered to be omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent. Aeschylus describes how Prometheus saved mankind from the misery of seeing their doom (Moros) with the gift of hope (Elpis).

Morrígan
The Morrígan is an ancient Irish goddess of war, battle, prophecy, sovereignty, and otherworld power. While She was worshipped primarily in Iron Age Ireland, the earliest recorded mention of her dates to 750 BC - however, this is widely believed to be a retelling of much older (oral) stories and is simply the first time it was ever written down. The Morrígan’s name can be translated from Irish into both “Great Queen” (from Old Irish ‘mor’ meaning ‘great’ and ‘rigan’ meaning ‘queen’) and “Phantom Queen” as an alternate etymology. She is a shapeshifting goddess, often turning into one of her many forms in the ancient Irish literature; She has been known to shift into a crow or raven, a she-wolf, an eel, a cow, a horse, and both old and young women. She is a goddess that is deeply tied to both warfare and the land itself, offering a protective, tutelary role. 
The Morrígan was first and foremost a goddess of war and death. She was also the goddess of prophecy and fate, and as such saw the future of all things, including the end of the world. She was all-knowing and would occasionally share her knowledge with others (for a price). Her prophecies were never wrong, and her wordings were exact, if somewhat poetic. Her appearance to royalty and warriors also represented the side she favored in a battle. The Morrígan’s association with the raven stemmed from the bird’s constant presence on the battlefield.
Her husband is the Dagda (or the Great God), who came to her for prophecy before major battles. She is associated with several sacred and natural sites across Ireland.

Mot
Mot is the ancient Canaanite god of death and the Underworld. He was worshipped by the people of Ugarit, by the Phoenicians, and by the Hebrews of the Old Testament. The main source of information about his role in Canaanite mythology comes from the texts discovered at Ugarit, but he is also mentioned in the surviving fragments of Philo of Byblos's Greek translation of the writings of the Phoenician Sanchuniathon and in various books of the Old Testament.
Mot was particularly important in the land of Canaan, which, unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt, had no great rivers and relied largely on rainfall to water its crops. In Canaanite mythology, Mot, and Baal were bound in a cyclical battle in which Mot temporarily vanquishes Baal, whose body is heroically rescued by his sister Anath, after which Baal is resurrected, finally defeating Mot, and returning life-giving rain to the land.
Baal's challenge to Mot
"Respects I shall not send to Mot," Baal declares, "nor greetings to El's beloved!" Mot responds in kind: "I alone am he who will rule over the gods, yea, command gods and men, even dominate the multitudes of the earth."
Baal commands his messengers to travel to Mot's city in the underworld, where he sits on his throne. However, Baal cautions his minions: "Do not draw near the god Mot, lest he make you like a lamb in his mouth, like a kid in his jaws you be crushed!" The lesser gods must honor Mot: "The heavens halt on account of El's darling, Mot," Baal declares. "At the feet of Mot, bow and fall. Prostrate yourselves and honor him!"
Despite honoring him with words, however, Baal refuses to pay him tribute. Infuriated, Mot sends word back to Baal that he will exact revenge by devouring Baal like a titanic lion, thus bringing a terrible curse of drought upon the earth:
Not even the mighty storm god Baal could stand against Mot's withering power of death and drought.
A lip to earth, a lip to heaven, and a tongue to the stars, so that Baal may enter his inwards, yea descend into his mouth, as scorched is the olive, the produce of the Earth, and the fruit of the trees.

Nergal
Nergal is a deity who was worshipped throughout ancient Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. Nergal had a multitude of functions in the religion of ancient Mesopotamia and its neighbors. God lists attest that he had one of the highest numbers of epithets out of all documented deities, with the An-Anum list alone providing around a hundred. He was especially closely related to war, disease, and the underworld, and according to Frans Wiggermann can be understood as "god of inflicted death." However, Nergal's warlike nature also made him a god defending the realm, whose presence was regarded as necessary for peace - in this role he was known under the title Lugal-Silimma ("The lord of peace"). He was invoked in apotropaic rituals as well, as his fearsome reputation was believed to keep houses safe from evil.
Over time Nergal developed from a war god to a god of the underworld. Rule over the underworld was initially described as bestowed upon him by his parents, with his function being to decide fates of the dead the same way as Enlil did for the living. As a god of the afterlife, Nergal was associated with sunset in poetry (Mesopotamians believed the sun to travel through the land of the dead at night), and with judgment (one texts links him in that capacity with the judge god Ishtaran).

Sekhmet
In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet, is a warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare. Upon death, Sekhmet continued to protect them, bearing them to the afterlife. Her name comes from the Ancient Egyptian word sḫm, which means "power or might" and is thus translated as "the (one who is) powerful or mighty". She also was given titles such as the "(One) Before Whom Evil Trembles", "Mistress of Dread", "Lady of Slaughter" and "She Who Mauls".
Sekhmet was considered the daughter of the sun god, Ra, and was among the more important of the goddesses who acted as the vengeful manifestation of Ra's power, the Eye of Ra. Sekhmet was said to breathe fire, and the hot winds of the desert were likened to her breath. She was also believed to cause plagues, which were called her servants or messengers, although she was also called upon to ward off disease.
In a myth about the end of Ra's rule on the earth, Ra sends the goddess Hathor, in the form of Sekhmet, to destroy mortals who conspired against him. In the myth, Sekhmet's bloodlust was not quelled at the end of battle and led to her destroying almost all of humanity. To stop her Ra poured out beer dyed with red ochre or hematite so that it resembled blood. Mistaking the beer for blood, she became so drunk that she gave up the slaughter and returned peacefully to Ra. The same myth was also described in the prognosis texts of the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days of papyrus Cairo 86637. The saving of mankind was commemorated every year on the feast day of Sekhmet. Everyone drank beer stained with pomegranate juice and worshipped “the Mistress and lady of the tomb, gracious one, destroyer of rebellion, mighty one of enchantments”.
The ancient Egyptians believed that Sekhmet had a cure for every problem. In order to stay on her good side, they offered her food and drink, played music for her, and burned incense. They would whisper their prayers into the ears of cat mummies and offer them to Sekhmet. They believed that this was a direct connection to the deities and their prayers would be answered.

Shinigami
Shinigami (死神, literally “shi” and “kami” mean “death” and “god”) are gods or supernatural spirits that invite humans toward death in certain aspects of Japanese religion and culture. Shinigami have been described as monsters, helpers, and creatures of darkness. In Japanese mythology, the world is filled with kami of various sorts. Everything in the world has a spirit that governs it. There are kami of the sky, kami of the rivers, kami of luck and, of course, kami of death. These are the Shinigami.
The death spirit’s job is to invite mortal humans to death; however, just which kami are true Shinigami is not always clear. For example, Izanami is sometimes referred to as the first Shinigami because she introduced death to the world. Likewise, Yama the god of the underworld is also thought of as a Shinigami, but it’s not entirely clear whether these two truly are death spirits or not.
Shinigami are also spoken about in folk religion after the war. According to the mores of Miyajima, Kumamoto Prefecture, those who go out and return to attend to someone through the night must drink tea or eat a bowl of rice before sleeping, and it is said that a shinigami would visit if this was ignored.
In the Hamamatsu area, Shizuoka Prefecture, a shinigami would possess people and lead them to mountains, seas, and railroads where people have died. In those places, the dead would have a "death turn" (shiniban), and if there is nobody to die there next, they shall never ascend even if they were given a service, and it was said that people who were alive would be invited by the dead to come next. Also, it is ordinary to visit graves for the sake of Higan during noon or when the sun sets, but in the Okayama Prefecture, visiting the grave for Higan during sunrise without a previous time would result in being possessed by a shinigami. However, once one has visited the grave in sunset, then it would become necessary to visit the grave again during sunrise, to avoid a shinigami possessing one's body. With this background of folk belief, it is also thought that sometimes people would consider the ghosts of the deceased, who have nobody to deify them, to be seeking companions and inviting people to join them.

Supay
In the Quechua, Aymara, and Inca mythologies, Supay was both the god of death and ruler of the Ukhu Pacha, the Incan underworld, as well as a race of demons and is associated with miners' rituals.
With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Christian priests used the name "Supay" to refer to the Christian Devil. However, unlike Europeans in relation to the Christian Devil, "the indigenous people did not repudiate Supay but, being scared of him, they invoked him and begged him not to harm them". He was influential in their everyday life, as children were even sacrificed for him.
Supay acquired a syncretic symbolism, becoming a main character of the diabladas of Bolivia (seen in the Carnaval de Oruro), Peru and other Andean countries. The name Supay is now roughly translated into diablo in most Southern American countries.
In some areas of Peru, the Quechua people continue the tradition of the Supay dance at the colonial Mamacha Candicha festivity which roughly translates as "virgin of the candle flame" known as "Virgen de la Candelaria" in Spanish and is a festival with dancing lasting up to two weeks.

Tzitzimitl
In Aztec mythology, a Tzitzimitl (plural Tzitzimimeh) is a deity associated with stars. They were depicted as skeletal female figures wearing skirts often with skull and crossbone designs. In Postconquest descriptions they are often described as "demons" or "devils" - but this does not necessarily reflect their function in the prehispanic belief system of the Aztecs.
The Tzitzimimeh were female deities, and as such related to fertility, they were associated with the Cihuateteo and other female deities such as Tlaltecuhtli, Coatlicue, Citlalicue and Cihuacoatl and they were worshipped by midwives and parturient women. The leader of the tzitzimimeh was the Goddess Itzpapalotl who was the ruler of Tamoanchan - the paradise where the Tzitzimimeh resided.
The Tzitzimimeh were also associated with the stars and especially the stars that can be seen around the Sun during a solar eclipse. This was interpreted as the Tzitzimimeh attacking the Sun, this caused the belief that during a solar eclipse, the tzitzimime would descend to the earth and devour human beings. The Tzitzimimeh were also feared during other ominous periods of the Aztec world, such as during the five unlucky days called Nemontemi which marked an unstable period of the year count, and during the New Fire ceremony marking the beginning of a new calendar round - both were periods associated with the fear of change.
The Tzitzimimeh had a double role in Aztec religion: they were protectresses of the feminine and progenitresses of mankind. They were also powerful and dangerous, especially in periods of cosmic instability.

Whiro-te-tipua
Whiro-te-tipua (Whiro, or Hiro in the Tuamotus) is the lord of darkness and embodiment of all evil in Māori mythology. He inhabits the underworld and is responsible for the ills of all persons, a contrast to his brother and enemy Tāne. Taiwhetuki – Whiro's House of Death – is a deep and dark cave where all things evil are preserved, such as black magic. It is a place in which countless personifications of illnesses and diseases dwell. Geckos, skinks, and tuatara are feared because of their spiritual association with Whiro.
According to some tribes, when people die, their bodies descend into the underworld, where they are eaten by Whiro. Each time Whiro eats a body, he becomes stronger. This process will eventually make him sufficiently powerful to break free of the underworld, at which point he will come to the surface and devour everything and everyone on it. Cremation is therefore recommended to prevent this, because Whiro cannot gain strength from ashes.

Xtabay
La Xtabay is a Yucatec Maya myth about the female demon, Xtabay, a supernatural femme fatale who preys upon men in the Yucatán Peninsula. She is said to dwell in the forest to lure men to their deaths with her incomparable beauty. She is described as having beautiful, shining black hair that falls to her ankles and wearing a beautiful dress. One of the most accepted versions of the myth comes from the book, Diez Leyendas Mayas (1998), written by Jesus Azcorra Alejos.
Two equally beautiful women, Xkeban and Utz-colel, lived in a village or pueblo in the Yucatán Peninsula. Sometimes the women are said to be sisters. Xkeban was treated poorly by her community for her promiscuous behavior while Utz-colel was considered virtuous for remaining celibate. The people of the village planned to exile Xkeban, but they decided to allow her to remain to further humiliate her. Despite her ill treatment, Xkeban tended to the poor, sick, and animals in need. In contrast to Xkeban, Utz-colel was cold-hearted and believed she was superior to those around her, especially those socially below her. The townspeople adored Utz-colel because of her celibacy and overlooked her cruelty.
Several days after Xkeban's death, the townspeople discovered her body guarded by animals and surrounded by fragrant flowers. The homeless and poor, whom Xkeban had helped during her life, held a funeral for her and, soon afterward, a mysterious, sweet-smelling flower grew around her grave, for Xkeban had metamorphosed into the species of morning glory called, in the Maya language, xtabentún, (Ipomoea corymbosa (Convolvulaceae)). Xtabentún is a lax, clambering vine that sprawls through hedges, scenting the air with its festoons of delicate white trumpets, and it is said that the reason that it seeks such shelter is that it is defenseless (it has no thorns) - just as Xkeban had felt defenseless when she was human. This flower is used for a liqueur of the same name. Ipomoea corymbosa was also one of the most celebrated entheogens of the Aztecs, who knew the plant under the Nahuatl name coaxihuitl and its psychoactive seeds as ololiúqui ("round things") and, to this day, the seeds are still used to induce healing trances in curing rituals performed by the Zapotecs.
Utz-colel haughtily believed that her dead body would smell better than Xkeban's because of her purity, however, her dead body had an unbearable smell. The entire pueblo gathered for her funeral, and they put flowers around her grave that disappeared the next day. Utz-colel became the foul-smelling flower of the Tzacam cactus (Mammillaria columbiana ssp. yucatanensis or Mammillaria heyderi ssp. gaumeri). Utz-colel prayed to evil spirits who fulfilled her desire to become a woman again so that she too might become a beautiful flower in death, but incapable of love and motivated only by jealousy and rage, she became instead the demon Xtabay, outwardly a beautiful woman but inwardly cruel and predatory of heart.

Yama
Yama यम, is the Hindu god of Death and Justice, and is responsible for the dispensation of law and punishment of sinners in his abode, Yamaloka. According to the Vedas, he is said to have been the first mortal who died. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed, and is called "Lord of the Pitrs". Yama is also one of the oldest deities in the pantheon and some of his earliest appearances are found in the Rigveda. From there, he has remained a significant deity, appearing in some of the most important texts of Hinduism which include the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas.
Yama is also one of the Lokapalas (guardians of the directions), appointed as the protector of the southern direction. Legends describe him as the twin of Yamuna, a river goddess associated with life, and the son of the Sun god Surya and Saranyu. Other than Yamuna, he also has many siblings, such as the Ashvins, Shani, Shraddhadeva Manu, Revanta and Tapati. Some of his major appearances include in the tales of the Pandavas, Savitri Satyavan and the sage Markandeya. His assistant is Chitragupta, another deity associated with death. 
Mentioned in the Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhism, Yama subsequently entered Buddhist mythology in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Sri Lanka as a Dharmapala under various transliterations. He is otherwise also called as "Dharmaraja".

Yohaulticetl
In Aztec mythology, Yohualticetl, the "Lady of the Night", lord of the nocturnal sky is a moon goddess and guardian of infants. She may have been the same as Metztli and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl. Also referred to as the lowly goddess of worms who failed to sacrifice herself to become the sun and became the moon instead. She feared the sun because she feared its fire.

Aztec
Aztec
Canaanite
Canaanite
Celtic
Celtic
Chinese
Chinese
Egyptian
Egyptian
Finnish
Finnish
Greek
Greek
Hindu
Hindu
Incan
Incan
Japanese
Japanese
Javanese
Javanese
Lugbara
Lugbara
Maori
Maori
Mayan
Mayan
Persian
Persian
Slavic
Slavic
Sumerian
Sumerian
Yoruban
Yoruban
Adro
Adro
Ah Puch
Ah Puch
Ahriman
Ahriman
Apophis
Apophis
Batara Kala
Batara Kala
C Cross
C Cross
Camazotz
Camazotz
Coatlicue
Coatlicue
Crnobog
Crnobog
Dhumavati
Dhumavati
Ereshkigal
Ereshkigal
Eshu
Eshu
Except for God
Except for God
All Seeing Eye
All Seeing Eye
Itzpapalotl
Itzpapalotl
Ixtab
Ixtab
Kalma
Kalma
Kuk
Kuk
Lines
Lines
Lotus
Lotus
Loviatar
Loviatar
Meng Po
Meng Po
Mictlantecuhtli
Mictlantecuhtli
Moot
Moot
Moros
Moros
Morrighan
Morrighan
Mot
Mot
Nergal
Nergal
Ojibwa
Ojibwa
Owuo Atwedee
Owuo Atwedee
Sekhmet
Sekhmet
Shinigami
Shinigami
Skull
Skull
Supay
Supay
Theta
Theta
Twenty Three
Twenty Three
Tzitzimimeh
Tzitzimimeh
Whiro-te-tipua
Whiro-te-tipua
Xtabay
Xtabay
Yama
Yama
Yohaulticetl
Yohaulticetl
Back to Top